Friday, 29 April 2016

Stephen Hawking Life, Science Achievements, IQ

Stephen William Hawking is writer, an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist and Director of Research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology within the University of Cambridge. He's most known for his work in the study of black holes. Here in this articl,e you will getting information's on Stephen Hawking's IQ Test Score, Early Life, Science Achievements and much more things.

With the theoretical prediction that black holes emit radiation, a theory called ‘Hawking radiation’, he became the first to set forth a cosmology described by an union of the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. 

Hawking suffers from a rare and life-threatening ailment of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, a condition he's endured for all his adult life. It started while he was pursuing PhD from Cambridge University when he was just 21 years old, and now is nearly totally paralyzed and conveys through a speech generating device. 

But not succumbing to the despair of the disease, Hawking devoted all of his life to research and his work. He is an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts and was the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge for around three decades. 

For his contribution to his pioneering work in cosmology and the study of universe, he was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire.

Youth & Early Life

Hawking was born on 8 January 1942. His father was a medical researcher. He belonged to a family of well read individuals - his mother was among the first female students who graduated from the Oxford.

When the whole nation as well as his family was going through a financial crunch due to the ongoing WW II Hawking was born. He was the eldest out of the four children.

His dad went to Africa and became the head of the Division of Parasitology at the National Institute of Medical Research - Hawking showed more interest although he aspired for him to become a physician.

He attended St Albans School but he was never an exceptional pupil that was conventionally, instead he was interested in what occurred outside the classroom, and spent his time and energy in inventing new things.

Afterwards, against his father’s wishes, he made plans to pursue mathematics but it was not the area that was educated in Oxford University at the time so he had to take up physics and chemistry .

He spent his time devising innovative techniques and still didn't pay an excessive amount of awareness of the studies that are bookish.

During his first year, Hawking started to show physical symptoms that were abnormal; he'd suddenly trip and tumble or his speech slurred. These symptoms were suppressed by him but when they were found by his father, he was sent for a chain of evaluations.

It was diagnosed that he was in the initial phases of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, which meant that the part of his nervous system that was responsible for muscle control was shutting down—a life threatening affliction.

Hawking began concentrating totally on his research work with this new found awareness of the suddenness of death and the fact that according to the doctors he only had another two years to live.


Hawking became a part of the Institute of Astronomy in the discoveries of cosmologist, Roger Penrose and Cambridge in 1968, on black hole actually fascinated him as he himself was working on the phenomena that started the Universe.

In 1970, Hawking found the second law of black hole dynamics— the event horizon of a black hole can never get smaller. Along with, James M. Bardeen and Brandon Carter, he suggested the four laws of black hole mechanics.

Hawking seen his conversations with Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich and Alexei Starobinsky and Moscow in 1973 helped him to show up with ‘Hawking radiation’. In the following year, he became a Fellow of the Royal Society.

He started to get more recognition through TV interviews and his print and he was awarded the Pius XI Gold Medal and the Eddington Medal , followed by the Dannie Heineman Prize, the Maxwell Prize, etc.

Hawking was now named as a professor with a chair in gravitational physics in 1977 and received the Albert Einstein Medal and an honorary doctorate in the University of Oxford.
He slowly began losing control over his address and it became increasing difficult to comprehend him but that this did not prevent him from becoming made as the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the Cambridge University in 1979.

In 1982, a Nuffield Workshop was formed by Gary and Hawking Gibbons on the subject ‘The Really Early Universe’ at Cambridge University, which focused chiefly on the cosmological inflation theory.

He published a model, the ‘Hartle-Hawking state’ the notion of the beginning of the universe is meaningless and with Jim Hartle, which stated that time didn't exist.
He lost his voice. 

As a result of this, he needed 24-hour attention. His state captured attention of a Californian computer programmer, who invented a talking application that may be directed by head or eye movement.

Hawking gained the international prominence with the publication of ‘A Brief History of Time’ for the very first time in 1988. It became an immediate bestseller and was intended to be a simplified version of cosmology for the masses.

He co-edited a book with Gary Gibbons on Euclidean quantum gravity, and released a collected edition of his own articles and his series of lectures were released as ‘The Nature of Space and Time’.

A well-known collection of talk, interviews and essays was printed in 1993. It was followed by a six-part television series ‘Stephen Hawking's a companion publication and Universe’.

He wrote an easy to read book on cosmology in 2001, ‘The Universe in Nutshell’, that has been followed by, ‘A Briefer History of Time (2005), ‘God Created the Integers (2006)’, ‘God’s Secret Key to the Universe (2007)’, etc.

Hawking retired in 2009 as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics, owing to University regulations. He's continued to work as a director of research at the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics.

Major Works

Hawking’s exploration that is essential is in the areas of theoretical cosmology, focusing on the development of the universe as governed by the laws of general relativity. He is most known for his work in the study of black holes.

Awards & Accomplishments

Other honors include—the Wolf Prize, he was named a Companion of Honor by Her Highness, Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize, the Copley Medal, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the Russian Fundamental Physics Prize, etc.

Stephen Hawking IQ Score recorded of 154, which is higher than most of us!

Personal Life

  • He met his wife, Jane Wilde, a buddy of his sister, shortly before the analysis of his sickness. They had three children together: Robert, Lucy and Timothy. Jane was a pillar of strength for Hawking in the beginning of the marriage but with his physical state that is regressing and increasing international popularity, their union became a huge weight on Jane and pressure started to brew within their relationship.
  • During the late 1980, Hawking left Jane for her and got involved within an affair with among his nurses, Elaine Manson. He wed Manson in 1995 and took a divorce from Jane. Their union proved to be hazardous to Hawking’s family life and he removed from the lives of his children. It was suspected that Elaine was physically mistreating him but Hawking denied it. He took a divorce from her.
  • Hawking’s physical state is deteriorating day by day; he began to control his communication device with motions of his cheek muscles in 2005, which may lead to a risk of locked-in syndrome.
  • He can no longer drive his wheelchair; a ventilator is required by him at times and continues to be hospitalized repeatedly since 2009. He's working with researchers on systems that could translate his brain routines into switch activations.


  • Stephen W. Hawking Science Museum in San Salvador, El Salvador, the Stephen Hawking Building in Cambridge and the Stephen Hawking Centre at Perimeter Institute in Canada—are all named after him.
  • His first wife, Jane, composed publications like, ‘Travelling to Infinity’, ‘My Life with Stephen’, etc.
  • Jane met organist Jonathan Hellyer Jones while singing in a church choir in 1977 and they developed a love relationship but Hawking didn't object to it saying that as long as she loved him, he is okay with their platonic relationship.